Skin pigmentation, melanogenesis is a complex process and involves different signaling pathways (uv radiation, immune, inflammation, endocrine) and different stages of melanin synthesis (1,2). Currently available treatments are used with variable results and rather low efficacy.
Sun/Age Spots affect about 400 to 600 Mio persons in EU and North America and is triggered by prolonged sun exposure, > 60% of Caucasians have sun/age spots (3).
Melasma occurs predominantly in persons with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI and is triggered by sun exposure, pregnancy or oral contraceptives. It has a high prevalence especially in latino females (8%-36%) and the Asian population (up to 40%) (4).