Melanogenesis is a complex process and involves different signaling pathways (uv radiation, immune, inflammation, endocrine) and different stages of melanin synthesis . Currently available treatments are used with variable results and rather low efficacy.
Sun/Age Spots affect about 400 to 600 Mio persons in EU and North America and is triggered by prolonged sun exposure, > 60% of Caucasians have sun/age spots .
Melasma occurs predominantly in persons with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI and is triggered by sun exposure, pregnancy or oral contraceptives. It has a high prevalence especially in latino females (8%-36%) and the Asian population (up to 40%) .